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Scale refers to increasing revenue quicker than costs. Companies can scale in several ways. For example, a business may try to find market gaps or adopt new technologies.


A secondary sale occurs when an existing stockholder sells their existing shares to a third party (rather than new shares being issued).

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme a.k.a. SEIS

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme, or “SEIS”, is a government scheme offering tax-efficient benefits to investors. It offers investors better benefits than EIS, but is limited to £500K of investment per company.

See also: Enterprise Investment Scheme
Seed Investment

Seed Investment, or Seed Funding, is the funds raised at the beginning of a business's journey to get enough money to develop an idea for a new product or idea.


SEIS1 is a compliance form statement that investors send to HMRC to allow them to claim SEIS tax relief.


SEIS3 is a certificate for investors containing vital information about their investment in a business with the SEIS scheme.

Series A

Series A funding is a start-up business's initial venture capital-raising round.

Series B

Series B funding is a secondary material fundraising stage for businesses that have already been through a Series A round.

Series Funding

Series funding refers to the different stages of raising finance from venture capitalists or private equity investors for a start-up, after seed investments.

Serviceable Available Market a.k.a. SAM

Serviceable Available Market, SAM, is the market part that a business can get.

See also: SOM TAM
Serviceable Obtainable Market a.k.a. SOM

Serviceable Obtainable Market, SOM, is a metric that provides a realistic indicator of what part of the market a company can realistically get in 3 to 5 years.

See also: SAM TAM

The SH01 is a legal form that UK companies must submit to Companies House when they issue new shares.


The SH02 is a form companies file with Companies House to notify them that a share sub-division or consolidation has occurred.

See also: Share split
Share Certificate

A share certificate provides shareholders with written proof of the number and class of shares they own in a company.

Share Class

This denotes the class of share someone owns, if there are Alphabet Shares in issue.

Share split

A share split is when a share is divided into a greater number of shares with a smaller Nominal Amount. For example, a share with a £1 Nominal Value could be split into 100 shares with a 1 pence nominal value.

See also: SH02

A shareholder is a company, person, or institution that owns shares in a company.

Shareholder Resolution

Shareholder resolutions are formal decisions or agreements made by shareholders in a company.

Shareholders Agreement

A shareholders agreement is legally binding and entered into by some or all shareholders in a business, to regulate how certain aspects of the company should be conducted.

Social Investment Tax Relief a.k.a. SITR

Social Investment Tax Relief, or “SITR”, is the UK government's tax relief scheme designed to encourage investors to support social enterprises. SITR also supports social enterprises in getting new funding sources. Social enterprises eligible include charities and community businesses.

Special Purpose Vehicle a.k.a. SPV

A Special Purpose Vehicle, or “SPV”, is a company created for a specific purpose. For example, it could hold a trading group’s intellectual property rights, or an office premises. Providers include Odin and Vauban.


A company owned and/or controlled by another company. The company that owns the subsidiary is called a holding, or parent, company.

Sweat Equity

Sweat equity is the non-monetary contribution business stakeholders put into the business.


A syndicate is a group of people or organisations that comes together to execute a project or for business purposes.